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As technology and force transformations motivate the use of more and more autonomous systems, the role of the autonomous vehicle operator is becoming increasingly remote and supervisory in nature.  Even the most autonomous systems, however, will require the intervention of a human operator, to some degree. 

Coinciding with the introduction of higher levels of autonomy are the broad assumptions that one operator will be able to control several unmanned systems at one time.  However, such claims do not take into account the numerous mission, vehicle, and operator characteristics that can dynamically affect the overall performance of autonomous vehicles, their operators, and the relationship between the two. 

The challenge for mission planners and analysts, then, is how to determine the best ratio of operators to autonomous systems given the variability inherent in mission conditions and in operator and vehicle capabilities.

So how do we determine an operator's span of control over autonomous systems under varying conditions?  The solution is the Autonomous Vehicle Operator Span of Control Evaluation Tool (AVOSCET)

AVOSCET is a tradeoff analysis tool specifically designed to answer this question.  Analysts can use AVOSCET to define particular scenarios involving any combination of unmanned systems and operators for which they would like to evaluate the adequacy of the operator-to-vehicle ratio.  This tool was developed for the Army Research Laboratory under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract.

AVOSCET Features


 For more information:

  View the AVOSCET Demo Video

  View the AVOSCET Brochure

  Contact us at


The research reported in this document/presentation was performed in connection with Contract DAAD17-03-C-008 with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory - Human Research and Engineering Directorate.  The views and conclusions contained in this document/presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as presenting the official policies or position, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government unless so designated by other authorized documents.  Citation of manufacturer's or trade names does not constitue an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof.  The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein.

For more information on AVOSCET, please contact us at

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